“A little political” or “I’ll only be occupying the toilet.”

I recently saw the “We are the 99 Percent” blog on Tumblr. Which if we’re going by “millionaire” status, should be more like “We are the 96.777777 percent”.

Reading the about/introduction page, I have to say that some of that applied to me. Then I attended some Financial Peace University classes. I started planning my finances better, deliberately putting aside money for rainy days, cancelling extra services like my cable television, not eating out so much, etc. These things really started to come to head after getting married. We were able to be quite comfortable month to month even while paying down our debts.

While my wife and I have been very blessed and have not had the hardships many people have put on “We are the 99 Percent”. I would like think that our planning and our hard work have played a significant role in where our lives are today.

So without further delay, my “I am the 1 percent” contribution.

I never finished the two year Associate in Applied Science degree at the local Community College I was working towards.
My wife had several thousand dollars in student loans when we married, I had some credit card debt.
I never owned a brand new car.
I am married to a wonderful woman.
I have a beautiful daughter and another child on the way.
I have a job where I enjoy the work with decent pay.
My wife and I share a car.
My wife and I both have a smart-phones.
My wife and I have one television.
My wife and I have no paid television service (cable/satellite) unless Netflix counts.
I have an Xbox 360 Slim.
My wife and I rent a home.
My wife and I have no credit cards.
My wife and I have a 3 months of living expenses in savings.
My wife and I now have no debt other then our upcoming home mortgage.
We are in our mid-twenties.

I am the 1 percent.

There are of course many other things that could be on this list, but to think of the all would just push this entry back.

Hurricane Electric 6in4 Windows startup script

Updates HE public IP records for your tunnel (for instance at the coffee shop), finds the first available interface that is connected and creates a v6v4tunnel using that IP.

See script for where you need to edit.

function fastpingtest {
    $ping = New-Object System.Net.NetworkInformation.Ping;
    $ping.Send("8.8.8.8", 1000).status -eq "success";
}
$endtime = [datetime]::Now.AddMinutes(1);
$mapipv6 = $false; 
while([datetime]::Now -lt $endtime) {
    if(fastpingtest) { $mapipv6 = $true; break; }
}

if($mapipv6) {
    $wc = New-Object net.webclient;
    $url= "https://ipv4.tunnelbroker.net/ipv4_end.php?ip=AUTO&pass={1}&apikey={0}&tid={2}";

    $values = "USERID", "PASSWORDMD5HASH", TUNNELID;
    $wc.DownloadString(($url -f $values));
    
    #get connected interface
    $interface = netsh interface ipv4 show interface | findstr /c:" connected" | ?{!$_.contains("Loopback");} | %{[regex]::Split($_, "( )+") | ?{$_.trim().length -gt 0} | %{$_.trim()}; }
    $interface_ip = (netsh interface ipv4 show address $interface[0] | findstr /c:"IP Address" | select -First 1).split(":")[1].trim()
    netsh interface teredo set state disabled
    netsh interface ipv6 add v6v4tunnel IP6Tunnel $interface_ip HEIPv4ENDPOINT
    netsh interface ipv6 add address IP6Tunnel YOURIPv6ADDRESS
    netsh interface ipv6 add route ::/0 IP6Tunnel HEIPv6ADDRESS
}

IPv6 range/subnet calculater for powershell

From what I can tell, there aren’t many…if any, IPv6 address range calculators. While I read it is recommended that you use the entire /64 block, I don’t think it’s always necessary to do so. Besides, what happens when you want to route only a portion of the block to one place?

Example usage:

ipv6range.ps1 2001:470:1f10:60::10 64 | ft ipaddress*
ipv6range.ps1 2003:5:1f:fa0::10 104 | ft ipaddress* #ipv4 /8 equivalent
ipv6range.ps1 2003:5:1f:fa0::10 112 | ft ipaddress* #ipv4 /16 equivalent
ipv6range.ps1 2003:5:1f:fa0::10 120 | ft ipaddress* #ipv4 /24 equivalent
ipv6range.ps1 2003:5:1f:fa0::10 124 | ft ipaddress* #ipv4 /28 equivalent

….and the code….

param(
    [net.ipaddress]$Addr,
    [int]$netmask = 64,
    [switch]$ForceListing

)

if($Addr.AddressFamily -ne 'InterNetworkV6') { throw "`$Addr must be a valid IPv6 address."; }

<#
Create a subnet mask based on a CIDR input.
#>
function subnet {
    param(
        [int]$netmask
    )

    if($netmask -gt 128) { throw "`$netmask cannot be greater than 128"; }

    $mask = (@($true) * $netmask) + (@($false) * (128-$netmask));
    return New-Object Collections.BitArray @(,$mask);
}

<#
Convert a BitArray into a byte array for easy conversion into an IPAddress.
#>
function bit2byte {
    param(
        [Collections.BitArray]$bitArray
    )

    for($i = 0; $i -lt $bitArray.length; $i+=8) {
        [convert]::ToByte([string]::Join("", ([string[]][byte[]]($bitArray[$i..($i+7)]))), 2)
    }
}

<#
convert an ip into a BitArray for easy bitwise operations.
#>
function ip2bit {
    param([net.ipaddress]$addr)

    $b = $addr.GetAddressBytes();
    $bits = @();
    foreach($a in $b) {
        $t = [convert]::ToString($a,2).padleft(8,"0") #[7..0];
        $bits += [string]::join("",$t);
    }
    $nbits = ($bits | %{[char[]]$_} | %{[bool]::Parse("$_".replace("1","true").replace("0","false"))});
    return New-Object collections.bitarray @(,$nbits)
}

<#
Increment an ipv6 address.
#>
function inc {
    param([net.ipaddress]$addr)

    $b = $addr.GetAddressBytes();

    for($i = $b.length-1; $i -ge 0; $i--) {
        if($b[$i] -gt 254) { continue; }
        $b[$i]++;
        break;
    }
    New-Object net.ipaddress @(,$b);
}

<#
Decrement an ipv6 address.
#>
function dec {
    param([net.ipaddress]$addr)

    $b = $addr.GetAddressBytes();

    for($i = $b.length-1; $i -ge 0; $i--) {
        if($b[$i] -eq 0) { continue; }
        $b[$i]--;
        break;
    }
    New-Object net.ipaddress @(,$b);
}

$ipArr = new-object collections.bitarray @(,(ip2bit $Addr.GetAddressBytes()))

$netBits = New-Object collections.bitarray @(,(subnet $netmask))
$hostBits = (New-Object collections.bitarray $netBits).Xor((New-Object collections.bitarray 128, $true)) #.xor((New-Object collections.bitarray 128, $true))

$netId = New-Object net.ipaddress @(, (bit2byte (New-Object collections.bitarray $ipArr).And($netBits)));
$netBcast = New-Object net.ipaddress @(, (bit2byte (New-Object collections.bitarray $ipArr).Or($hostBits)));

$numHosts = [math]::Pow(2, ($hostBits | ?{$_} | measure).count)

if($numHosts -gt 256 -and !$ForceListing.ispresent) {
    #well, if we have more than this, just output the (ipv4 equivalent) network id and broadcast address.
    $netId
    $netBcast
} else {
    Add-Member -PassThru -Force -InputObject $netId -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IsUsable -Value $false;
    try {
        $lastAddr = $netId;
        for($i = 0; $i -lt $numHosts-2; $i ++) {
            $lastAddr = inc $lastAddr
            Add-Member -PassThru -Force -InputObject $lastAddr -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IsUsable -Value $true;
        }
    } catch {}
    Add-Member -PassThru -Force -InputObject $netBcast -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IsUsable -Value $false;
    #$res
}

Notes:

  • Not commented well. RTCFA (read the code for answers)! >:(
  • Only increments despite there being a decrement function.
  • If the number of host addresses is less then 256, it will always display the complete listing.

Favorite .NET library not a 4.0?

Recently I made some configuration changes to Powershell so I could use the latest .Net version (4.0), but it caused errors with a project. The problem turned out to be that the library was trying to load an older version of mscorelib. This is pretty easily fixed thanks to Microsoft packaging a compiler with .NET.

#download your library source and extract if necessary
cd \path\to\source\code

#If your target is x64, use "Framework64" instead
C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\v4.0.30319\MSBuild.exe .\project.csproj

 

Now you have a version of your library compiled as a .NET 4.0 DLL. You could of course use Visual Studio to do this, but who would want to deal with it when you’re only a couple commands away?

Powershell: Wake up on Lan 0.3

Nick asked, “This script looks good. Would you mind adding comments to it to describe its logic? Also, it doesn’t appear to like having colons in MAC addresses even though colons is pretty standard. Thanks for sharing your script!” (link).

Well Nick, here you are! I hope it helps!

param (
    [parameter(Position=0,
        Mandatory = $true,
        ParameterSetName="bymac",
        HelpMessage="Wake up a machine by known mac address.")]
    [string]
    $targetMac,
    [parameter(Position=0,
        mandatory = $true,
        ParameterSetName="byip",
        HelpMessage="Wake up a machine by last known IP address.")]
    [Net.IPAddress]
    $targetIP,
    [parameter(Position=1)]
    $network = [net.ipaddress]::Broadcast,
    [parameter(Position=2)]
    $subnet = [net.ipaddress]::Broadcast
)

try {
    #Convert -network and -subnet to Net.IPAddress objects if necessary.
    if($network.gettype().equals([string])) {
        $network = [net.ipaddress]::Parse($network);
    }
    if($subnet.gettype().equals([string])) {
        $subnet = [net.ipaddress]::Parse($subnet);
    }
    
    #find the broadcast address for the -network
    #eg. the broadcast address for the ip 192.168.1.101/255.255.255.0 is 192.168.1.255.
    $broadcast = new-object net.ipaddress (([system.net.ipaddress]::parse("255.255.255.255").address -bxor $subnet.address -bor $network.address))
    
    #attempt to figure out if the first value is an ip or mac address.
    #if we do this: wol.ps1 192.168.1.255
    #instead of this: wol.ps1 -targetIP 192.168.1.255
    try {
        $targetIP = [net.ipaddress]::Parse($targetMac.toupper()).tostring() # | Out-Null;
    } catch {
        #$_;
        try {
            [Net.NetworkInformation.PhysicalAddress]::Parse($targetMac.toupper().replace(".","").replace(":","").replace("-","")) | Out-Null;
        } catch {
            #$_;
        }
    }
    
    #Find our target mac address.
    #$targetIP isn't set in the above try..catch if it's a mac address.
    if($targetIP) {
        try {
            $nmac = (arp -a $targetIP | ? {$_ -imatch $targetIP}).split(" ") | ? {$_.trim().length -gt 0;} | %{ $_.trim(); };
            $targetMac = $nmac[1];
        }catch{
            throw "IP address is unknown.";
        }
    }
    
    $mac = [Net.NetworkInformation.PhysicalAddress]::Parse($targetMac.toupper().replace(".","").replace(":","").replace("-",""))
    
    <#"targetmac: " + $targetMac;
    "targetip: " + $targetip;
    "mac: " + $mac;#>
    
    #Setup 3 different endpoints for the common WOL ports.
    $u = New-Object net.sockets.udpclient
    $ep = New-Object net.ipendpoint $broadcast, 0
    $ep2 = New-Object net.ipendpoint $broadcast, 7
    $ep3 = New-Object net.ipendpoint $broadcast, 9
    
    #setup the payload.
    #6 bytes of 255 followed by the target mac 16 times.
    $payload = [byte[]]@(255,255,255,255,255,255);
    $payload += ($mac.GetAddressBytes()*16)
    
    #send it out a few times.
    for($i = 0; $i -lt 10; $i++) {
        $u.Send($payload, $payload.Length, $ep) | Out-Null
        $u.Send($payload, $payload.Length, $ep2) | Out-Null
        $u.Send($payload, $payload.Length, $ep3) | Out-Null
        "$(date) - WOL payload $($i+1)/10 sent to $targetMac on $broadcast/$subnet" | Write-Debug;
        sleep -Milliseconds 10;
    }
} catch {
    $_ | Write-Error;
}
#Win32_NetworkAdapter
#Win32_OperatingSystem
#Win32_NetworkClient
#Win32_SystemNetworkConnections

SnojNS 0.2: Still has a lame name

After many an hour pouring over the code and running tests galore, I think I’ve resolved some of the major issues from version 0.1. Like how it would just randomly crash when the forward lookup hosts decided they had had enough. Now it’ll recover from it and chug along.

There is now some simple compression. So now instead of having 6 “google.com” entires, we now have 1 with references to that first occurrence. Down the road, I plan on adding better compression so that parts of domains can be compressed. For instance “someSubdomain.josherickson.org” becomes “someSubdomain.{reference to first josherickson.org}”.

Commit comments:

fixed: non-coded types returned empty from outside sources.
fixed: crash when socket was interupted.
added: m attribute to tags. <a m="somehost" ip="1.1.1.1" />
added: beginning dns compression...I think. at least it appears to work.
notes: improved xml lookups. now can easily add xpath based lookups.
notes+: might need to improve this further to allow other filter types.
notes: rm attributes will likely wait until xpath fn:matches function is available.

Issues:

I’ve noticed while using HE’s IPv6 Tunnel Broker service, that I can’t surf IPv6 sites while using snojns. Not sure why this is, but I wonder if there needs to be an IPv6 socket listener as well.

Download:

If you’re smart enough to run this, you’ll know which you’ll want to get.

snojns 0.2.0: Release, Debug, Source.

Traceroute with starting TTLs

Tracing stuff with tracert or traceroute you can’t specify a starting TTL. So there will always be routers that show up and waste time.

This code is pretty rudimentary. Hopefully I’ll be able to expand on it to include ipv6 and make it faster.

param(
    $targetIP,
    $BeginHop = 1,
    $EndHop = 30,
    $timeout = 1000,
    [switch]$GetHostname
)

$addrtype = [System.Net.Sockets.AddressFamily]::InterNetwork;
if($v6.ispresent) {
    $addrtype = [System.Net.Sockets.AddressFamily]::InterNetworkV6;
}

$targetIPActual = $null;
if(![net.ipaddress]::TryParse($targetIP, [ref]$targetIPActual)) {
    $target = [net.dns]::GetHostEntry($targetIP);
    $targetIPActual = $target.addresslist | where {$_.addressfamily -eq $addrtype} | select -First 1
} else {
    $target = New-Object psobject -Property @{"HostName" = $targetIP.tostring()}
}

for($i = $BeginHop; $i -lt $EndHop; $i++) {
    
    $ping = new-object System.Net.NetworkInformation.ping;
    $pingo = new-object System.Net.NetworkInformation.PingOptions $i, $true;
    $sendbytes = @([byte][char]'a'..[byte][char]'z');
    $pr = $ping.Send($targetIPActual, $timeout, $sendbytes, $pingo);
    try {
        $rtn = New-Object psobject -Property @{
            "IP" = $pr.Address;
            "RoundtripTime" = $pr.RoundtripTime;
            "Status" = $pr.Status;
        }
    } catch {
        $rtn = New-Object psobject -Property @{
            "IP" = "*";
            "RoundtripTime" = $pr.RoundtripTime;
            "Status" = $pr.Status;
        }
    }
    
    try {
        if($GetHostname.ispresent) {
            Add-Member -InputObject $rtn -MemberType NoteProperty -Name Hostname -Value ([net.dns]::GetHostEntry($pr.Address).hostname)
        }
    } catch{}
    
    $rtn;
    
    #$pr
    try { 
        if($pr.Address.tostring() -eq $targetIPActual) { break; }
    } catch{}
}

Its a mnemonic kind of thing, a dns kind of thing

Hosts files are great, you can specify any host to IP combination, overriding anything.

But what about other types of records? Hosts files can’t do service, text, pointer records, etc? So what to do if you want to test these record types? You could setup your own DNS server, create a new zone, add the records to test, while mail, chat, and other services fail left and right on your machine. Or you could use SnojNS.

SnojNS sits between you and your current DNS server. It can add or change domains much like the hosts file, but it can do so much more, like CNAME, PTR, or SRV record types. I’m hoping to add more at later dates, but not to worry, when it comes across a request it doesn’t understand, it just forwards it and relays the info back so you’re never without internet access.

Running it:

Unzip it or compile, edit the hosts.config, open a command prompt, and run. Or if you’re feeling brave, double click to run it and forget about logging any errors that pop up.

sample output of snojns.

Issues:

Seems to have an issue when there is a lot of requests. That is…it’ll crash. Though the data suggests that it has to do with the forward lookup rejecting udp connections and we can’t yet recover from the error.

Download:

If you’re smart enough to run this, you’ll know which you’ll want to get.

snojns 0.1.0: ReleaseDebugSource

Features:

  • define a, cname, ptr, and srv resource records
  • forward lookups for undefined domains and unknown resource record types
  • define forward lookups based on requested domain
    • somehost.com can use google’s servers (8.8.8.8) while someotherhost.com uses opendns’ (208.67.222.222)
  • a lot of unused code and commented out sections.

Features Road map:

Not all may happen, but ideas I’d like to explore.

  • config file watch: try reloading the hosts file after a save operation so there’s no need to restart.
  • more record types: like AAAA (ipv6), TXT, and MX.
  • separate dns packet parsing into its own dll
  • create an actual windows service?
  • cache! need that cache.
  • ttl definitions for local records?
  • plugin system to introduce new record types and classes (though who would use anything other than IN?)
  • TCP
  • lookups over ssh: ‘cuz we can’t trust the transit (I’m looking at you Hak5, with your pineapple).
  • DNSSEC
  • load balancing round robins for both answers and forward lookups.

 

 

Also, if someone comes up with a better name than “SnojNS” that I like, I’ll buy you $10-15 something from woot.com or amazon as thanks….so thanks! Just post it in the comments or something, as long as I get your email and address.